Network Cabling Fiber Optics

Ohio TeleCom LLC 800-821-2686
  

800-821-2686
Columbus:
614-420-4572
2783 Martin Rd.
Dublin, OH 43017
Cincinnati:
513-926-6186
9891 Montgomery, Rd.
Cincinnati, Ohio 45242
Dayton:
937-222-2269
2324 Stanley Avenue
Dayton, Ohio 45404

Network Cabling Fiber Optics

We are expert installers of everything from Twisted Pair Ethernet to fiber backbones. Whatever your needs Ohio TeleCom has the experience and equipment to build reliable network infrastructure Network Cabling Fiber Optics – We guarantee it!

The Ohio TeleCom Way Ohio TeleCom believes in doing the job right. We maintain professional standards at all times. We use the highest quality parts and equipment available. We train our employees thoroughly and every wire we run is tested with professional tools. When the job is done, we make sure the job site is perfect before we leave. This allows us to guarantee all of our work.
Click here for more information.

Call now to schedule your appointment!!!
800-821-2686

Network Cabling Fiber Optics

Network Cabling Fiber Optics

We are expert installers of everything from Twisted Pair Ethernet to fiber backbones. Whatever your needs Ohio TeleCom has the experience and equipment to build reliable network infrastructure Network Cabling Fiber Optics – We guarantee it!

The Ohio TeleCom Way Ohio TeleCom believes in doing the job right. We maintain professional standards at all times. We use the highest quality parts and equipment available. We train our employees thoroughly and every wire we run is tested with professional tools. When the job is done, we make sure the job site is perfect before we leave. This allows us to guarantee all of our work.
Click here for more information.

Call now to schedule your appointment!!!
800-821-2686

Network Cabling Fiber Optics

Network Cabling Fiber Optics Fiber Optics

An optical fiber or optical fibre is a flexible, transparent fiber made by network cable drops drawing glass (silica) or plastic to a diameter slightly thicker than that of a human hair.[1] Optical fibers are used most often as a means to transmit light between the two ends of the fiber and find wide usage in fiber-optic communications, where they permit transmission over longer distances and at higher bandwidths (data rates) than electrical cables. Fibers are used instead of metal wires because signals travel along them with less loss; in addition, fibers are immune to electromagnetic interference, a problem from which metal wires suffer excessively.[2] Fibers are also used for illumination and imaging, and are often wrapped in bundles so they may be used to carry light into, or images out of confined spaces, as in the case of a fiberscope.[3] Specially designed fibers are also used for a variety of other applications, some of them being fiber optic sensors and fiber lasers.[4]

Optical fibers typically include a core surrounded by a transparent cladding material with a lower index of refraction. Light is kept in the core by the phenomenon of total internal reflection which causes the fiber to act as a waveguide.[5] Fibers that support many propagation paths or transverse modes are called multi-mode fibers, while those that support a single mode are called single-mode fibers (SMF). Multi-mode fibers generally have a wider core diameter[6] and are used for short-distance communication links and for applications where high power must be transmitted.[citation needed] Single-mode fibers are used for most communication links longer than 1,000 meters (3,300 ft).[citation needed]

Being able to join optical fibers with low loss is important in fiber optic communication.[7] This is more complex than joining electrical wire or cable and involves careful cleaving of the fibers, precise alignment of the fiber cores, and the coupling of these aligned cores. For applications that demand a permanent connection a fusion splice is common. In this technique, an electric arc is used to melt the ends of the fibers together. Another network cable drops common technique is a mechanical splice, where the ends of the fibers are held in contact by mechanical force. Temporary or semi-permanent connections are made by means of specialized optical fiber connectors.[8]

The field of applied science and engineering concerned with the design and application of optical fibers is known as fiber optics. The term was coined by Indian physicist Narinder Singh Kapany, who is widely acknowledged as the father of fiber optics.[9]

Contents
1 History
1.1 Record speeds
2 Uses
2.1 Communication
2.2 Sensors
2.3 Power transmission
2.4 Other uses
3 Principle of operation
3.1 Index of refraction
3.2 Total internal reflection
3.3 Multi-mode fiber
3.4 Single-mode fiber
3.5 Special-purpose fiber
4 Mechanisms of attenuation
4.1 Light scattering
4.2 UV-Vis-IR absorption
4.3 Loss budget
5 Manufacturing
5.1 Materials
5.2 Process
5.3 Coatings
6 Practical issues
6.1 Cable construction
6.2 Termination and splicing
6.3 Free-space coupling
6.4 Fiber fuse
6.5 Chromatic dispersion
7 See also
8 References
9 Further reading
10 External links
History

Daniel Colladon first described this “light fountain” or “light pipe” in an 1842 article titled “On the reflections of a ray of light inside a parabolic liquid stream”. This particular illustration comes from a later article by Colladon, in 1884.
Guiding of light by refraction, the principle that makes fiber optics possible, was first demonstrated by Daniel Colladon and Jacques Babinet in Paris in the early 1840s. John Tyndall included a demonstration of it in his public lectures in London, 12 years later.[10] Tyndall also wrote about the property of total internal reflection in an introductory book about the nature of light in 1870:[11][12]

When the light passes from air into water, the refracted ray is bent towards the perpendicular… When the ray passes from water to air it is bent from the perpendicular… If the angle which the ray in water encloses with the perpendicular to the surface be greater than 48 degrees, the ray will not quit the water at all: it will be totally reflected at the surface…. The angle which marks the limit where total reflection begins is called the limiting angle of the medium. For water this angle is 48°27′, for flint glass it is 38°41′, while for diamond it is 23°42′.
In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, light was guided through bent glass rods to illuminate body cavities.[13] Practical applications such as close internal illumination during dentistry appeared early in the twentieth century. Image transmission through tubes was demonstrated independently by the radio experimenter Clarence Hansell and the television pioneer John Logie Baird in the 1920s. In the 1930s, Heinrich Lamm showed that one could transmit images through a bundle of unclad optical fibers and used it for internal medical examinations, but his work was largely forgotten.[10][14]

In 1953, Dutch scientist Bram van Heel first demonstrated image transmission through bundles of optical fibers with a transparent cladding.[14] That same year, Harold Hopkins and Narinder Singh Kapany at Imperial College in London succeeded in making image-transmitting bundles with over 10,000 fibers, and subsequently achieved image transmission through a 75 cm long bundle which combined several thousand fibers.[14] Their article titled “A flexible fibrescope, using static scanning” was published in the journal Nature in 1954.[15][16] The first practical fiber optic semi-flexible gastroscope was patented by Basil Hirschowitz, C. Wilbur Peters, and Lawrence E. Curtiss, researchers at the University of Michigan, in 1956. In the process of developing the gastroscope, Curtiss produced the first glass-clad fibers; previous optical fibers had relied on air or network cable drops impractical oils and waxes as the low-index cladding material. A variety of other image transmission applications soon followed.

Kapany coined the term fiber optics, wrote a 1960 article in Scientific American that introduced the topic to a wide audience, and wrote the first book about the new field.[14][17]

The first working fiber-optical data transmission system was demonstrated by German physicist Manfred Börner at Telefunken Research Labs in Ulm in 1965, which was followed by the first patent application for this technology in 1966.[18][19] NASA used fiber optics in the television cameras that were sent to the moon. At the time, the use in the cameras was classified confidential, and employees handling the cameras had to be supervised by someone with an appropriate security clearance.[20]

Charles K. Kao and George A. Hockham of the British company Standard Telephones and Cables (STC) were the first, in 1965, to promote the idea that the attenuation in optical fibers could be reduced below 20 decibels per kilometer (dB/km), making fibers a practical communication medium.[21] They proposed that the attenuation in fibers available at the time was caused by impurities that could be removed, rather than by fundamental physical effects such as scattering. They correctly and systematically theorized the light-loss properties for optical fiber, and pointed out the right material to use for such fibers—silica glass with high purity. This discovery earned Kao the Nobel Prize in Physics in 2009.[22]

The crucial attenuation limit of 20 dB/km was first achieved in 1970 by researchers Robert D. Maurer, Donald Keck, Peter C. Schultz, and Frank Zimar working for American glass maker Corning Glass Works.[23] They demonstrated a fiber with 17 dB/km attenuation by doping silica glass with titanium. A few years later they produced a fiber with only 4 dB/km attenuation using germanium dioxide as the core dopant. In 1981, General Electric produced fused quartz ingots that could be drawn into strands 25 miles (40 km) long.[24]

Network Cabling Fiber Optics

Initially high-quality optical fibers could only be manufactured at 2 meters per second. Chemical engineer Thomas Mensah joined Corning in 1983 and increased the speed of manufacture to over 50 meters per second, making optical fiber network cable drops cables cheaper than traditional copper ones.[25] These innovations ushered in the era of optical fiber telecommunication.

The Italian research center CSELT worked with Corning to develop practical optical fiber cables, resulting in the first metropolitan fiber optic cable being deployed in Turin in 1977.[26][27] CSELT also developed an early technique for splicing optical fibers, called Springroove.[28]

Attenuation in modern optical cables is far less than in electrical copper cables, leading to long-haul fiber connections with repeater distances of 70–150 kilometers (43–93 mi). The erbium-doped fiber amplifier, which reduced the cost of long-distance fiber systems by reducing or eliminating optical-electrical-optical repeaters, was co-developed by teams led by David N. Payne of the University of Southampton and Emmanuel Desurvire at Bell Labs in 1986.

The emerging field of photonic crystals led to the development in 1991 of photonic-crystal fiber,[29] which guides light by diffraction from a periodic structure, rather than by total internal reflection. The first photonic crystal fibers became commercially available in 2000.[30] Photonic crystal fibers can carry higher power than conventional fibers and their wavelength-dependent properties can be manipulated to improve performance.
Installation caveats
Category 7 and 7A cable must be properly installed and terminated to meet specifications. The cable must not be kinked or bent too tightly (the bend radius should be at least four times the outer diameter of the cable[10]). The wire pairs must not be untwisted and the outer jacket must not be stripped back more than 0.5 in (12.7 mm).
Network Cabling Fiber Optics
Cable shielding may be required in order to improve a Fiber Optics cable’s in Dayton, Columbus and Cincinnati performance in high electromagnetic interference (EMI) environments. This shielding reduces the corrupting effect of EMI on the cable’s data. Shielding is typically maintained from one cable end to the other using a drain wire that runs through the cable alongside the twisted pairs. The shield’s electrical connection to the chassis on each end is made through the jacks. The requirement for ground connections at both cable ends creates the possibility that a ground loop may result if one of the networked chassis is at different instantaneous electrical potential with respect to its mate. This undesirable situation may compel currents to flow between chassis through the network cable shield, and these currents may in turn induce detrimental noise in the signal being carried by the cable.

Network Cabling Fiber Optics

Category 7e
Category 7e is not a standard, and is frequently misused because category 5 followed with 5e as an enhancement on category 5. Soon after the ratification of Fiber Optics , a number of manufacturers began offering cable labeled as “Category 7e”. Their intent was to suggest their offering was an upgrade to the Category 7 standard—presumably naming it after Category 5e. However, no legitimate Category 7e standard exists,[11] and Fiber Optics e is not a recognized standard by the Telecommunications network cable drops Industry Association. Category 7 is an ISO standard, but not a TIA standard. Fiber Optics is already in place as a shielded cable solution with non-traditional connectors that are not backward-compatible with category 3 through 7A. Category 8 is the next UTP cabling offering to be backward compatible in Dayton, Columbus and Cincinnati.[12]

References